The effects of face-to-face and online Hatha yoga-based mindfulness trainings on the subjective well-being and distress tolerance among housewives during the covid-19 pandemic

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran.

2 MSc of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Sport Sciences, Islamshahr Branch, Islamic Azad University, Islamshahr, Iran


Background: Housewives build a significant part of society. They play a key role in strengthening the foundation of the family and nurturing the next generation of any country, so it is very important to pay attention to mental health of this population.  
Aim: This study investigated effects of a period of Hatha yoga-based mindfulness practice on distress tolerance and subjective wellbeing of housewives.
Materials and Methods: Participants were 38 housewives between 31 to 52 years who were randomly divided into two experimental groups including face-to-face (i.e., presence on the grass, n=17) and online (via Sky room, n=21). A 6-week Hatha Yoga-based mindfulness training was held simultaneously in twelve sessions for both groups. Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) and Keyes and Magyar-Moe’s Subjective Well-being Scale were used.
Results: The results of analysis of covariance showed that all subscales of distress tolerance and subjective well-being of housewives in the face-to-face group were significantly higher than the online group. Moreover, the results of paired t-test showed that the means of post-test of all subscales of distress tolerance and subjective well-being of housewives were significantly higher than the means of pre-test. But in the online group, the means of pre-test and post-test did not differ significantly in all variables.
Conclusion: Our findings emphasize that, in order to improve metacognitive processes, yoga-based mindfulness training in online method cannot replace face-to-face method.


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