A systematic review of validity and reliability assessment of measuring Spasticity Evaluation Tool and Wheelchair Skills Tests at the level of international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) in people with spinal cord injury

Document Type : Review Article


1 MSc Adapted Physical Education, Department of Health and Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Health and Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Background: Assessment of spasticity and wheelchair skills performance is important in both clinical practice and research.
Aim: The present study aimed to systematically review the psychometric properties (reliability and validity) of outcome measures used to assess spasticity and wheelchair skill tests in people with spinal cord injury.
Materials and Methods: A search was conducted using terms through PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Related articles included measures of spinal cord injury patients published in English from 2010 to 2021.To determine the publication quality of studies COSMIN checklist was used.
Results: A total of 2150 potentially eligible studies were retrieved from four databases. The remaining 20 full-text studies were retrieved for complete review. Finally, 12 studies involving a total of 658 participants were included in the systematic review.
Conclusion: Ethical, safety, and psychological issues were considered during the test for people with disabilities. According to previous studies, the Spasticity Evaluation Tool has been suggested as a reliable tool for assessing spasticity in SCI subjects. However, due to the variety of tests and the elimination of selected tools, wheelchair skills tests cannot be recommended.


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