The effect of two different intense training protocols on oxidative stress of liver tissue during puberty in male rats

Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Sport Sciences, Faculty of Humanities, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran


Background: Intense physical activity increases the production of reactive oxygen species in vital tissues such as the liver and causes oxidative stress.
Aim: This study investigates the effect of high-intensity interval training and intense endurance training on oxidative stress of liver tissue in immature male rats during puberty.
Materials and Methods: A total of 24 male Wistar rats (aged= 22 days, weight= 60±0.63 g), after one week of acclimatization, were divided randomly into three groups: control, IET, and HIIT. Rats were subjected to a four-week training on an animal treadmill. The effects of training treatment in rat liver were investigated by assaying oxidative stress biomarkers.
Results: Comparing to control group, in both training groups significantly lower Malondialdehyde (MDA) was seen ((P(IET)= 0.016/ P(HIIT)= 0.020). However, there were no statistical differences in Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX) (P= 0.463) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) activity levels (P= 0.194) among groups. HIIT training significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P= 0.040) and catalase enzyme (CAT) levels (P= 0.007). IET and HIIT had significantly increased endurance performance (both: P= 0.001).
Conclusion: Both training intensities did not lead to an increase in oxidative stress and can be used during puberty.


[1] Avloniti A, Chatzinikolaou A, Deli CK, Vlachopoulos D, Gracia-Marco L, Leontsini D, Draganidis D, et al. “Exercise-induced oxidative stress responses in the pediatric population”. Antioxidants. 2017; 6(1): 6.

[2] Gougoura S, Nikolaidis MG, Kostaropoulos IA, Jamurtas AZ, Koukoulis G, Kouretas D. “Increased oxidative stress indices in the blood of child swimmers”. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2007; 100(2): 235-239.

[3] Cooper DM, Nemet D, Galassetti P. “Exercise, stress, and inflammation in the growing child: from the bench to the playground”. Current Opinion in Pediatrics. 2004; 16(3): 286-292.

[4] Carlsohn A, Rohn S, Mayer F, Schweigert FJ. “Physical activity, antioxidant status, and protein modification in adolescent athletes”. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2010; 42(6): 1131-1139.

[5] Paltoglou G, Fatouros IG, Valsamakis G, Schoina M, Avloniti A, Chatzinikolaou A, et al. “Antioxidation improves in puberty in normal weight and obese boys, in positive association with exercise-stimulated growth hormone secretion”. Pediatric Research. 2015; 78(2): 158-164.

[6] Scopel D, Fochesatto C, Cimarosti H, Rabbo M, Belló-Klein A, Salbego C, et al. “Exercise intensity influences cell injury in rat hippocampal slices exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation”. Brain Research Bulletin. 2006; 71(1-3): 155-159.

[7] Atalay M, Laaksonen DE. “Diabetes, oxidative stress and physical exercise”. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine. 2002; 1(1): 1.

[8] Bloomer RJ, Smith WA. “Oxidative stress in response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing: influence of exercise training and carnitine supplementation”. Research in Sports Medicine. 2009; 17(1): 1-16.

[9] Finkel T, Holbrook N.J. “Oxidants, oxidative stress and the biology of ageing”. Nature. 2000; 408(6809): 239-247.

[10] Hoene M, Weigert C. “The stress response of the liver to physical exercise”. Exercise Immunology Review. 2010; 16.

[11] Shephard RJ, Johnson N. “Effects of physical activity upon the liver”. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2015; 115(1): 1-46.

[12] Draganidis D, Karagounis LG, Athanailidis I, Chatzinikolaou A, Jamurtas AZ, Fatouros IG. “Inflammaging and skeletal muscle: can protein intake make a difference?”. The Journal of Nutrition. 2016; 146(10): 1940-1952.

[13] Draganidis D, Chatzinikolaou A, Jamurtas AZ, Carlos Barbero J, Tsoukas D, Theodorou AS, et al. “The time-frame of acute resistance exercise effects on football skill performance: the impact of exercise intensity”. Journal of Sports Sciences. 2013; 31(7): 714-722.

[14] Mohr M, Draganidis D, Chatzinikolaou A, Barbero-Álvarez JC, Castagna C, Douroudos I, et al. “Muscle damage, inflammatory, immune and performance responses to three football games in 1 week in competitive male players”. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2016; 116(1): 179-193.

[15] Chatzinikolaou A, Fatouros IG, Gourgoulis V, Avloniti A, Jamurtas AZ, Nikolaidis MG, et al. “Time course of changes in performance and inflammatory responses after acute plyometric exercise”. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research. 2010; 24(5): 1389-1398.

[16] Finaud J, Lac G, Filaire E. “Oxidative stress”. Sports Medicine. 2006; 36(4): 327-358.

[17] Jafari M, Pouryamehr E, Fathi M. “The effect of eight weeks high intensity interval training (HIIT) on E-selection and P-selection in young obese females”. International Journal of Sport Studies for Health. 2018; 1(1).

[18] Sengupta P. “The laboratory rat: relating its age with humans”. International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2013; 4(6): 624.

[19] Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang AG, Buchner A. “G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences”. Behavior Research Methods. 2007; 39(2): 175-191.

[20] Gorzi A, Rahmani A, Mohammadi Z, Neto WK. “Effects of different lengths of high-intensity interval training microcycles on the systemic and hippocampal inflammatory state and antioxidant balance of immature rats”. Molecular Biology Reports. 2021; 48(6): 5003-5011.

[21] Bijeh N, Hejazi K, Delpasand A. “Acute and chronic responses of serum leptin hormone to different intensities of exercise in rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome”. Pathobiology Research. 2015; 18(1): 95-106.

[22] Mohhebat H, Talebi Garekani E, Hedayati, M, Fathiet R. “Effects of exercise training on high molecular weight adiponectin in healthy male rat”. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2009; 11(3): 315-321.

[23] Vincent HK, Powers SK, Stewart DJ, Demirel HA, Shanely RA, Naito H. “Short-term exercise training improves diaphragm antioxidant capacity and endurance”. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2000; 81(1): 67-74.

[24] Joo YI, Sone T, Fukunaga M, Lim SG, Onodera S. “Effects of endurance exercise on three-dimensional trabecular bone microarchitecture in young growing rats”. Bone. 2003; 33(4): 485-493.

[25] Gorzi A, Jamshidi F, Rahmani A, Krause Neto W. “Muscle gene expression of CGRP-α, CGRP receptor, nAchR-β, and GDNF in response to different endurance training protocols of Wistar rats”. Molecular Biology Reports. 2020; 47(7): 5305-5314.

[26] Ferraresso RL, de Oliveira R, Macedo DV, Nunes LA, Brenzikofer R, Damas D, Hohl R. “Interaction between overtraining and the interindividual variability may (not) trigger muscle oxidative stress and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in rats”. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2012.

[27] Gul M, Demircan B, Taysi S, Oztasan N, Gumustekin K, Siktar E, et al. “Effects of endurance training and acute exhaustive exercise on antioxidant defense mechanisms in rat heart”. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 2006; 143(2): 239-245.

[28] Arthur J, Boyne R. “Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in neutrophils from selenium deficient and copper deficient cattle”. Life Sciences. 1985; 36(16): 1569-1575.

[29] Paglia DE, Valentine WN. “Studies on the quantitative and qualitative characterization of erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase”. The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. 1967; 70(1): 158-169.

[30] Aebi, H. “Catalase in vitro”. Methods in Enzymology. 1984; 105: 121-126.

[31] Miller NJ, Rice-Evans C, Davies MJ, Gopinathan V, Milner A. “A novel method for measuring antioxidant capacity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant status in premature neonates”. Clinical Science. 1993; 84(4): 407-412.

[32] Yeylaghi Ashrafi M, Dabidi Roshan V. “Aerobic and anaerobic exercise of the acute and chronic and the selected markers of oxidative stress: A systematic review in human and Animal Studies”. Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences. 2016. 22:1126-1138.

[33] Poblete Aro CE, Russell Guzmán JA, Soto Muñoz ME, Villegas González BE. “Effects of high intensity interval training versus moderate intensity continuous training on the reduction of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic adult patients: CAT”. Medwave. 2015: 15(07).

[34] Burgomaster KA, Howarth KR, Phillips SM, Rakobowchuk M, Macdonald MJ, McGee SL, et al. “Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans”. The Journal of Physiology. 2008; 586(1): 151-160.

[35] Valko M, Rhodes CJ, Moncol J, Izakovic M, Mazur M. “Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer”. Chemico-Biological Interactions. 2006; 160(1): 1-40.

[36] Chaki B, Pal S, Chattopadhyay S, Bandyopadhyay A. “High-intensity exercise-induced oxidative stress in sedentary pre-pubertal & post-pubertal boys: A comparative study”. The Indian Journal of Medical Research. 2019; 150(2): 167.37.

[37] Zahradník D, Korvas P. The Introduction into Sports Training. Masaryk University, Brno, 2012.

[38] Hovanloo F, Hedayati M, Ebrahimi M, Abednazariet H. Effect of various time courses of endurance training on alterations of antioxidant enzymes activity in rat liver tissue. 2011.

[39] Zalavras A, Fatouros IG, Deli CK, Draganidis D, Theodorou AA, Soulas D, Koutsioras Y, et al. “Age-related responses in circulating markers of redox status in healthy adolescents and adults during the course of a training macrocycle”. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2015.

[40] Liu J, Yeo HC, Overvik-Douki E, Hagen T, Doniger SJ, Chyu DW, et al. “Chronically and acutely exercised rats: biomarkers of oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidants”. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2000; 89(1): 21-28.

[41] Lima FD, Stamm DN, Della-Pace ID, Dobrachinski F, de Carvalho NR, Royes LF, et al. “Swimming training induces liver mitochondrial adaptations to oxidative stress in rats submitted to repeated exhaustive swimming bouts”. PloS one. 2013; 8(2): e55668.

[42] Navarro A, Gomez C, López-Cepero JM, Boveris A. “Beneficial effects of moderate exercise on mice aging: survival, behavior, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial electron transfer”. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 2004; 286(3): R505-R511.