The Investigation of Upper Extremity Performance of Normal-Hearing and Congenital Severe to Profound Hearing-Impaired Students Using YBT-UQ

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistance Professor, University of Gilan

2 MSc., University of Guilan

3 MSc. University of Guilan


Although communication problem is the main defect resulted from
hearing impairment, other physical problems may be associated with it. The
aim of this study was to investigate the performance of upper extremity in
male and female hearing-impaired and normal-hearing students with Y
Balance Test of Upper Quarter (YBT-UQ). The sample was comprised of 80
students including 40 congenital severe to profound hearing-impaired girls
and boys (age: 18.10±2.77 yr and 17.95±2.56 yr) and 40 normal-hearing
girls and boys (age: 17.55±0.60 yr and 17.60±0.56 yr) who were selected by
the purposive non-random method from normal and deaf high schools in
Guilan province. Subjects' personal information, height, weight and medical
records were collected using their medical profiles. The YBT-UQ was used
to evaluate the performance of upper extremity in the closed kinematic
chain under medial, inferior – lateral and superior – lateral directions. To
compare the groups' performance and directions, one-way ANOVA was
used while paired t test was used to compare dominant and non-dominant
extremity. Results revealed no significant difference between the
performance of dominant and non-dominant upper extremities in all groups
(P􀂔0.05). There were significant differences among the four groups: boys
without hearing-impairment, boys with hearing-impairment, girls without
hearing-impairment, and girls with hearing-impairment performed better
(P<0.05). However, only the difference between normal-hearing and
hearing-impaired girls was not statistically significant (P􀂕0.05). In
conclusion, there was no difference in performing YBT-UQ between 
dominant and non-dominant upper limbs; therefore, this test can be used to
evaluate and examine the injured limb. Also, regarding the defect in the
dynamic balance performance of hearing-impaired subjects and the effect of
gender on this defect and the importance of the upper extremity in daily
routines, it is necessary to design and implement plans aiming at improving
their performance.