The Study of Static and Dynamic Balance in Mentally Retarded Female Students with and without Down Syndrome (DS)



Down syndrome is most common genetic disorder with mild to moderate mental
retardation and also a prevalence of 1 per 800-1000 births. The aim of this study
was to assess static and dynamic balance in female students with and without
Down syndrome and the relationship between balance with IQ and age. 30
mentally retarded students with Down syndrome (age 13.96±1.77 years, height
135.40±8.19cm, weight 42.86±9.21 kg, IQ 59.12±3.73) and 30 mentally retarded
students without Down syndrome (age 14.30±1.96 years, height 136.30±8.07 cm,
weight 41.46±8.67 kg, IQ 61.73±5.02) were selected randomly to participate in this
study. Demographic data, height, weight and medical records of Down syndrome
were collected from medical files. Modified single balance test to evaluate static
balance and heel-to-toe test to evaluate dynamic balance were used. The result
showed a significant difference between static and dynamic balance in two groups
(p?0.05). Also, a significant relationship was observed between dynamic and static
balance with IQ and age in girls with Down syndrome (P?0.05). People with Down
syndrome have lower levels of kinetic growth in comparison with normal subjects
and the mentally retarded people without Down syndrome and this fact causes
weakness in their balance. Due to the weakness of balance in people with Down
syndrome and also the importance of balance in daily activities and sport skills, it
seems essential to design and perform physical programs to improve their balance.